For example, two insects that have been confused for one another are different species of beetles that attack trees. Male and female Asian longhorned beetle compared to male and female whitespotted pine sawyer. At a glance, the white-spotted pine sawyer and Asian longhorned beetle do look similar — particularly because of their large size, dark coloring and long antennae. But upon close inspection, there are differences. The body of the white-spotted pine sawyer beetle is browner in color, and the segments of its antennae are uniform in color and appearance.
Relatively little is known about the genomic basis and evolution of wood-feeding in beetles. We undertook genome sequencing and annotation, gene expression assays, studies of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and other functional and comparative studies of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis , a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important tree species. Complementary studies of genes encoding enzymes involved in digestion of woody plant tissues or detoxification of plant allelochemicals were undertaken with the genomes of 14 additional insects, including the newly sequenced emerald ash borer and bull-headed dung beetle. The Asian longhorned beetle genome encodes a uniquely diverse arsenal of enzymes that can degrade the main polysaccharide networks in plant cell walls, detoxify plant allelochemicals, and otherwise facilitate feeding on woody plants. It has the metabolic plasticity needed to feed on diverse plant species, contributing to its highly invasive nature. Large expansions of chemosensory genes involved in the reception of pheromones and plant kairomones are consistent with the complexity of chemical cues it uses to find host plants and mates.
Search for:. The Situation: An exotic long-horned beetle was first discovered attacking ornamental trees in New York City and Chicago. Detections of this pest have since been made in most states in the northeastern portion of the United States as well as in California beginning in
Uncertainty about future spread of invasive organisms hinders planning of effective response measures. We present a two-stage scenario optimization model that accounts for uncertainty about the spread of an invader, and determines survey and eradication strategies that minimize the expected program cost subject to a safety rule for eradication success. The safety rule includes a risk standard for the desired probability of eradication in each invasion scenario. Because the risk standard may not be attainable in every scenario, the safety rule defines a minimum proportion of scenarios with successful eradication.