In the United States, children from poor families begin school well behind their more affluent peers and, if anything, lose ground during their school years. New research in this article also shows that - furthermore - poor children go on to complete less schooling, work and earn less, and are less healthy in adulthood. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics PSID , the article looks at the impact of low income in childhood - from the prenatal period through to 15 years - on school completion, adult earnings, hours worked, use of food stamps, police record, non-marital child bearing, and health outcomes such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. In conclusion, the article draws attention to the need for policy interventions aimed at addressing deep and persistent poverty during early childhood - a time of particular vulnerability. Poor children begin school academically and behaviourally well behind their more affluent peers and, if anything, lose ground during their school years.
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This study examined whether expectations about memory change with age vary for different personality types. Three hundred and seventy three participants in three age groups rated the memory abilities of target adults, defined by the adjective clusters, across the adult life span. Consistent with past studies, participants believed in age-related memory decline. However, participants rated target adults with positive personality traits as having better memory ability and less age-related memory decline than target adults with negative personality traits. This effect was larger when the traits were relevant to memory than when they were not.